Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies Spice Islandsbut, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March ; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan.
The Spanish city of Manila was founded inand by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration.
Spanish rule for the first years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda.
But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos collectors of the tributeas well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly.
Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. He dominated the Audienciaor high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit. Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital.
The galleon trade with AcapulcoMex. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries.
Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land.
Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government.
The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb.
Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangay s largely persisted. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars.Dragoon pigeon price
The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences.During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines —the different cultures of the archipelago experienced a gradual unification from a variety of native Asian and Islamic customs and traditions, including animist religious practices, to what is known today as Filipino culture, a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culturenamely Spanishincluding the Spanish language and the Catholic faith.
Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. The oldest universities, collegesand vocational schoolsdating as far back as the late 16th century were created during the colonial period, as well as the first modern public education system in Asia, established in By the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated peoples in all of Asia, boasting one of the highest literacy rates in that continent.
Spanish influence on Filipino culture
Simultaneously, the knowledge of Filipinos about neighboring cultures receded. During the early years of Spanish colonization, education was mostly run by the Church. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives and converted indigenous populations to the Catholic faith. King Philip II 's Leyes de Indias Laws of the Indies mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines to educate the natives, to teach them how to read and write in the Spanish language.
However, the latter objective was difficult given the realities of the time. Although by royal decree the friars were required to teach the Spanish language to the natives, they realized it would be easier for them to learn the local languages first, before teaching Spanish to the population.
The Spanish missionaries established schools soon after reaching the islands and a few decades into the Spanish period, there was no Christian village without its school, with most children attending. The Franciscans arrived inand they, too, immediately taught the people how to read and write, besides imparting to them important industrial and agricultural techniques.
The Jesuits who arrived in also concentrated on teaching the young. When the Dominicans arrived inthey did the same thing in their first mission in Bataan. Chirino at once put up a dormitory and school house — for the Spanish boys near his rectory. It was the first Jesuit boarding school to be established in the Philippines.
The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana Christian Doctrine was the first book printed in the Philippines in about to A version in Spanish, and in Tagalogin both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in Eventually, the Baybayin script was replaced by the Latin scriptas this became increasingly more useful and widespread.
InTomas Pinpin a Filipino printer, writer and publisher, who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing", wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castillathat was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language.Positioned on the western edge of the Pacific Oceanalong the Ring of Firethe Philippines is the second-largest archipelago in the world, with over 7, individual islands counted within its borders.
With a population of , The Philippines became an independent state in The history of the Philippines begins with its first inhabitants arriving via primitive boats nearly 67, years ago. Various tribes roamed the islands until small kingdoms began establishing roots during the first millennium.
For several centuries there was no unifying power within the Philippine archipelago, as the islands were controlled by various sultans. Ferdinand Magellan arrived inand placed the islands under Spanish ruling. Colonization was quick to follow, and the first European settlements began to pop up in For hundreds of years the Philippines were a Spanish colony, but were ceded to the U. The Philippines became one of the main focal points of battles between Japan and the U. During their early years as a new country, the Philippines faced various challenges, and had to be almost completely rebuilt following the devastation brought on by World War II.
Ferdinand Marcos was elected president inand toward the end of his second term, after being constitutionally barred from obtaining a third, he declared martial law. The dictatorial government of Ferdinand Marcos ended in Since then, a long parade of electoral presidential problems and internal struggles have been ongoing.
In addition, Abu Sayyaf, an armed Muslim insurgency group operating in the south, has collectively plagued the country for many years, and is now causing serious disruptions, especially in western tourism visits. On June 25,Mount Pinatubo violently erupted, severely weakening the already strained economy. The volcano's eruption marked the second largest of the 20th century, and its effects were felt worldwide.
Inafter many years of negotiations, the U. To further add to their problems, decades of intensive logging, inequitable land distribution, agricultural expansion and failed policies, have caused severe deforestation and land degradation.
History of the Philippines (1565–1898)
The government has established more than protected areas covering over 10 million acres. Forest conservation areas encompass approximately six million acres. Haiyan, one of the strongest storms in recorded history, decimated parts of the Philippines in November, More than 6, people were killed and over four million lost their homes. The government has played a powerful role in spearheading the recovery. Tourism has begun to flourish again with most of the visitors arriving from the U.
Guide to Japanese Etiquette. Top Coffee Producing Countries. Hong Kong Vistors Guide. The Top Coffee-Consuming Countries.Spanish was the official language of the Philippines for over three centuries, from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, untilwhen the islands were ceded to the United States. Spanish remained co-official, along with English, until It was at first removed in by a constitutional change, but after a few months it was re-designated an official language by presidential decree and remained official untilwith the present Constitution re-designating it instead as an "optional and voluntary language".
It was the language of the Philippine Revolution and the country's first official language, as proclaimed in the Malolos Constitution of the First Philippine Republic in It was the language of commerce, law, politics and the arts during the colonial period and well into the 20th century. Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries of Spanish rule and continued as the country's lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century.
During the early part of the U. As a senator, Manuel L. Spanish remained an official language of government until a new constitution ratified on January 17, designated English and Pilipinospelled in that draft of the constitution with a "P" instead of the more modern "F", as official languages.
Shortly thereafter, Presidential Proclamation No. A later constitution ratified in designated Filipino and English as official languages. There are thousands of Spanish loanwords in native Philippine languagesand Spanish orthography has influenced the spelling system used for writing most of these languages.
According to the Philippine census, there were 2, native Spanish speakers in the Philippines. Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries years of the Philippines being part of the Spanish Empire and continued to serve as a lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century.
The Franciscans followed suit when they arrived inas did the Dominicans when they arrived in Besides religious instruction, these schools taught how to read and write and imparted industrial and agricultural techniques. Initially, the stance of the Roman Catholic Church and its missionaries was to preach to the natives in local languages, not in Spanish. The priests learned the native languages and sometimes employed indigenous peoples as translatorscreating a bilingual class known as Ladinos.
Gaspar produced Christian devotional poetry written in the Roman script in Tagalog. Later, the Spanish-Mexican ballads of chivalry, the corridoprovided a model for secular literature. Verse narratives, or komedya, were performed in the regional languages for the illiterate majority. His book, published by the Dominican press in which he worked, appeared inthe same year as Blancas's Arte.
Unlike the missionary's grammar, which Pinpin had set in type, the Tagalog native's book dealt with the language of the dominant, rather than the subordinate, other.
Pinpin's book was the first such work ever written and published by a Philippine native. As such, it is richly instructive for what it tells us about the interests that animated Tagalog translation and, by implication, conversion during the early colonial period.
By law, each town had to build two schools, one for boys and the other for girls, to teach the Spanish language and the Christian catechism. There were never enough trained teachers, however, and several provincial schools were mere sheds open to the rain.
That discouraged the attendance at school, and illiteracy was high in the provinces until the 19th century, when public education was introduced. The conditions were better in larger towns. To qualify as an independent civil town, a barrio or group of barrios had to have a priest's residence, a town hall, boys' and girls' schools; streets had to be straight and at right angles to one another so that the town could grow in size; and the town had to be near a good water source and land for farming and grazing.
Better school conditions in towns and cities led to more effective instruction in the Spanish language and in other subjects. Between anda number of colleges and universities were established, which graduated many important colonial officials and church prelates, bishops, and archbishops, several of whom served the churches in Hispanic America.
The increased level of education eventually led to the rise of the Ilustrados. At the same time, primary schooling was made compulsory for all children. Ina new Spanish constitution brought to the Philippines universal suffrage and a free press. Spanish, of course, is the court and commercial language and, except among the uneducated native who have a lingua of their own or among the few members of the Anglo-Saxon colony, it has a monopoly everywhere.
No one can really get on without it, and even the Chinese come in with their peculiar pidgin variety. Long contact between Spanish and the local languages, Chinese dialects, and later Japanese produced a series of pidgins, known as Bamboo Spanishand the Spanish-based creole Chavacano.The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from to The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies.
Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan inthe Spanish explored and colonized the islands, starting with the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in Manila was made the capital of the Philippines in This was the time of the reign of King Philip II of Spainwhose name has remained attached to the country.
The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution and Spanish-American War inwhich marked the beginning of the American colonization of the Philippines. The Spaniards started to explore the Philippines in the early 16th century when Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands and reached Cebu in Magellan made a blood compact with the local chieftain of Cebu, Rajah Humabon as a sign of friendship.
After Humabon converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Carloshe requested Magellan to subjugate his enemy Lapu-Laputhe chief of nearby Mactan Island. In the ensuing Battle of MactanMagellan and other Spanish soldiers lost their lives, outnumbered by the Mactan tribesmen.
The remaining Spanish forces were later betrayed by their ally, Humabon, and hastily continued their journey to the Spice Islands. This second part of expedition was led by commander Juan Sebastian Elcano who ultimately completed the world's first circumnavigation in Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until because of European politics and wars in northern Europe.
Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition to the Spice Islands, stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands of the west"  in order to set up an outpost in Asia and engage in the spice trade. Philip II of Spainwhose name has remained attached to the islands, ordered and oversaw the conquest and colonization of the Philippines. InLegazpi sent his grandson, Juan de Salcedowho had arrived from Mexico into Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates who had been plundering Panay villages.Saint seiya full series
Salcedo also destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubangrespectively South and Northwest of Mindoro. Legazpi became the country's first governor-general.
The archipelago was Spain's outpost in the orient and Manila became the capital of the entire Spanish East Indies. The colony was administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain now Mexico until when Mexico achieved independence from Spain. Afterthe colony was governed directly from Spain. During most of the colonial period, the Philippine economy depended on the Galleon Trade which was inaugurated in between Manila and AcapulcoMexicothen the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
The Philippines plays an important role in these plans, as it is listed as a priority country for Spanish actions in this region, mostly due to the shared colonial links. Despite this shared history, there are several Spanish ambivalent perceptions that locate the Philippines as a country connected to Spain and, at the same time, in the periphery of countries with a Hispanic heritage, which is evident in the location of Fil-Hispanic studies within Hispanic scholarship.
Furthermore, Spanish official perceptions are often politically motivated, in relation to the practical uses that the location of the Philippines can have for Spain as a gateway to Asia, in particular, the neoliberal focus of certain Spanish policies, which re-establish a centre-periphery dynamics in a neo-colonial global context.
Date Author Diaz Rodriguez, J. Rights This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Collections Book chapters. Metadata Show full item record. Search MRO. This Collection.
Login Register. View Usage Statistics.Philippinesisland country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7, islands and islets lying about miles km off the coast of Vietnam. The second largest island of the Philippines is Mindanaoin the southeast.
The Philippines takes its name from Philip IIwho was king of Spain during the Spanish colonization of the islands in the 16th century. Because it was under Spanish rule for years and under U. It is, for example, the second most-populous Asian country following India with English as an official language and one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia the other being East Timor.
Despite the prominence of such Anglo-European cultural characteristics, the peoples of the Philippines are Asian in consciousness and aspiration. The country was wracked by political turmoil in the last quarter of the 20th century.Lamborghini gallardo kit car
After enduring more than a decade of authoritarian rule under Pres. Ferdinand Marcosthe broadly popular People Power movement in led a bloodless uprising against the regime. The confrontation resulted not only in the ouster and exile of Marcos but also in the restoration of democratic government to the Philippines. Contemporary Filipinos continue to grapple with a society that is replete with paradoxesperhaps the most obvious being the presence of extreme wealth alongside tremendous poverty.
Rich in resources, the Philippines has the potential to build a strong industrial economy, but the country remains largely agricultural.
Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule
Especially toward the end of the 20th century, rapid industrial expansion was spurred by a high degree of domestic and foreign investment. That growth, however, simultaneously contributed to severe degradation of the environment.
The Philippines also emerged as a regional leader in education during the late 20th century, with a well-established public school and university system, and by the early 21st century the country had one of the highest literacy rates in Asia. The islands spread out in the shape of a triangle, with those south of Palawanthe Sulu Archipelagoand the island of Mindanao outlining from west to east, respectively its southern base and the Batan Islands to the north of Luzon forming its apex.
The archipelago stretches about 1, miles 1, km from north to south, and its widest east-west extent, at its southern base, is some miles 1, km. The island of Taiwan lies north of the Batan group, the Malaysian portion of the island of Borneo is to the south of Palawan, and the eastern islands of Indonesia lie to the south and southeast of Mindanao.
Only about two-fifths of the islands and islets have names, and only some have areas of 1 square mile 2. The large islands fall into three groups: 1 the Luzon group in the north and west, consisting of Luzon, Mindoroand Palawan, 2 the Visayas group in the centre, consisting of BoholCebuLeyteMasbateNegrosPanayand Samarand 3 Mindanao in the south.
Outstanding physical features of the Philippines include the irregular configuration of the archipelago, the coastline of some 22, miles 36, kmthe great extent of mountainous country, the narrow and interrupted coastal plains, the generally northward trend of the river systems, and the spectacular lakes. The islands are composed primarily of volcanic rock and coral, but all principal rock formations are present. The mountain ranges for the most part run in the same general direction as the islands themselves, approximately north to south.
The Cordillera Centralthe central mountain chain of Luzonrunning north to the Luzon Strait from the northern boundary of the central plain, is the most prominent range.
It consists of two and in places three parallel ranges, each with an average elevation of about 5, feet 1, metres.GOOD NEWS, Spain Participates in AFP Modernization!
The Sierra Madre, extending along the Pacific coast from northern to central Luzon, is the longest mountain range in the country. To the north of the latter, and between the two ranges, is the fertile Cagayan Valley. The narrow Ilocos, or Malayan, range, lying close along the west coast of northern Luzon, rises in places to elevations above 5, feet 1, metres and is seldom below 3, feet 1, metres ; it is largely volcanic.
Most of the central plain of Luzon, about by 50 miles by 80 kmis only about feet 30 metres above sea level.
The greater part of southern Luzon is occupied by isolated volcanoes and irregular masses of hills and mountains. The island of Palawan is about 25 miles 40 km wide and more than miles km long; through it extends a range with an average elevation of 4, to 5, feet 1, to 1, metres. Each of the Visayan Islands except Samar and Bohol is traversed longitudinally by a single range with occasional spurs.Dr hasan miami bbl
Several peaks on Panay and Negros reach a height of 6, feet 1, metres or more. Mount Canlaon Canlaon Volcanoon Negros, rises to 8, feet 2, metres. There are several important ranges on Mindanao ; the Diuata Diwata Mountains along the eastern coast are the most prominent.
To the west lies another range that stretches from the centre of the island southward. Farther west the Butig Mountains trend northwestward from the northeastern edge of the Moro Gulf.
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